I have always read and heard (living 15 miles from Boykin, SC and knowing the Boykin family well) that the American Water Spaniel was one of the founding breeds of the Boykins. I do know (for a fact) that AWS were being bred back to Boykins as late as the 1970's. One of the old timers around here (90+ years old), who has owned and bred Boykins all his life, tells of crossing his Boykins with AWS and Springers during the depression and eliminating the pups that showed any white. There is also talk of Poodle and Pointers in the breed. Bottom line, I guess, is who really knows? Professor PS: There are many Boykins that are dead ringers for an AWS (except the docked tail).