Here are excerpts from a research article from "Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy" January 2, 2007 [Early Epub] by Jean-Marie Bourre. Dr. Dan Murphy excerpted 42 Key Points from the article. Then I excerpted (from Dr. Murphy's list) those Key points that relate to both Humans and Dogs. I have left out those that are purely human findings and don't relate to canines. The excerpts are in BLACK and my personal comments are in [BLUE] Definitions: ALA Alpha-linolenic acid, plant derived 18-carbon long omega-3 fatty acid. Found in flaxseed, walnut oil and hemp oil. EPA Eicosapentanoic acid, animal derived 20-carbon long omega-3 fatty acid. Primarily from cold-water fish. DHA Docosahexanoic acid, 22-carbon long omega-3 fatty acid. Primarily from cold-water fish, although some algaes also contain DHA. 1) Adequate maternal omega-3 fatty acid (primarily DHA) ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. [This is why I recommend Tuna Oil (high in DHA) for pregnant and lactating bitches] 4) ALA, DHA and EPA are important for preventing ischemic cadiovascular disease. [This was first shown in dogs and later in humans] 5) Omega-3 fatty acids (particularly DHA) have been shown to help prevent age-related macular (retinal) degeneration. This is why I recommend Tuna Oil (high in DHA) for dogs age 10 or 11 and older 8) The best sources for EPA and DHA are fish, seafood and "omega-3 eggs". 9) Both the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic (LA) and the omega-3 fatty acid ALA are "physiologically esssential" essential for life 11) Pregnant females that consume more fish oil improve the pregnancy for both the mother and the infant(s), reducing prematurity and low birth weight and reducing pre-eclampsia in the mother. 15) Omega-3 fatty acids are most important as structural elements in the developing nervous system (includes the brain) of the fetus and newborn and this is directly linked to the mother's food. [Again this is the reason that I recommend Tuna Oil for pregnant and lactating bitches, as well as puppies that are still developing their brain and nervous system] 16) ALA influences vision, behavior and brain structure and function. [Only a very small amount of DHA can be made from ALA] 17) Mother's milk that is high in DHA (and to some extent EPA) influences the visual, cerebral and intellectual capacities of newborn babies. 18) The fetus uses most of the portion of dietary omega-3 fatty acids for its developing brain. 19) Without supplementation, maternal DHA status decreases during pregnancy [It's all going to the babies for brain and nervous system development] 23) A diet containing only ALA (flaxseed oil) increases the ALA and EPA in the milk and erythrocytes of the lactating female, but not DHA. 26) Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA prevent age-related macular (retinal) degeneration. [Notice the word PREVENT, (not just "help prevent) Again this is why I recommend Tuna Oil for older dogs] 27) There is no doubt that supplements of omega-3 fatty acids generally taken as fish oil improve infant visual acuity. 28) A lack of omega-3 fatty acids damages hearing and leads to premature aging of the auditory nervous system. "Omega-3 fatty acids are important dietary components for perserving hearing throughout life". [Lots of dogs, even those that are not exposed to gunfire, lose their hearing] 29) Infant mammals (including humans) given fish oil during their first year of life are less likely to develop type 1 diabetes. [This is probably due to the anti-inflammatory action of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids] 32) There should always be a good intake of antioxidants (particularly vitamin E) to restrict the peroxidation of fatty acids, as these peroxide derivatives are genotoxic and cytotoxic. [This is VERY VERY Important, and why I do not recommend supplementing with fish oil without supplementing with Vit E at the same time. Fatty acids are very easily peroxidized (free radicals) unless they are protected with antioxidants.] 41) There is practically no toxicological risk from consuming too much omega-3 fatty acid. After I take a brain break, I'll follow this up with another post with some more of my thoughts. .