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Discussion in 'The Duck Hunters Forum' started by Doc E, Jan 12, 2019.
LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) Does Not Cause Cardiovascular Disease
I'm not a doctor, and haven't even stayed at a Holiday Inn Express lately, but it might be a true statement. But, if one has indications of a cardiovascular disease (which MAY include a high LDL), lowering LDL reduces the risks of stroke or heart attack.
Kind of like salt - it doesn't necessarily CAUSE high blood pressure, but if one has high blood pressure or some kinds of heart failure, reducing the intake of it is critical.
For half a century, a high level of total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been considered to be the major cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and statin treatment has been widely promoted for cardiovascular prevention. However, there is an increasing understanding that the mechanisms are more complicated and that statin treatment, in particular when used as primary prevention, is of doubtful benefit. Areas covered: The authors of three large reviews recently published by statin advocates have attempted to validate the current dogma. This article delineates the serious errors in these three reviews as well as other obvious falsifications of the cholesterol hypothesis. Expert commentary: Our search for falsifications of the cholesterol hypothesis confirms that it is unable to satisfy any of the Bradford Hill criteria for causality and that the conclusions of the authors of the three reviews are based on misleading statistics, exclusion of unsuccessful trials and by ignoring numerous contradictory observations.
Two new published studies from Statin Nation interviewees this week should push the cholesterol hypothesis a step back into the history books. Seventeen authors including: Uffe Ravnskov, Paul J Rosch, Sherif Sultan, Tomohito Hamazaki, Peter H Langsjoen, Kilmer S McCully, and Harumi Okuyama, published an article summarising the research showing that LDLs (so called ‘bad cholesterol’) do not cause heart disease. The paper highlights the following points:
The cholesterol hypothesis is based on misleading statistics and ignoring contradictory observations.
Only around 15% of clinical trials that found a negative result for cholesterol-lowering are cited in other reports.
There is no association between total cholesterol levels and the degree of arterial damage - in general, and also with regard to statin clinical trials.
In the Framingham Heart Study. “For each 1 mg/dl drop in TC [total cholesterol] per year, there was an eleven percent increase in coronary and total mortality”.
The LDL level of patients who have had a heart attack is lower than normal.
Elderly people with higher LDL live the longest.
Cardiovascular mortality has not decreased as a result of widespread statin treatment. Here is a quote from the paper that refers to this point:
“In a Swedish study including 289 of the 290 municipalities, no association was found between statin use and the change in mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Also, the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that during the period 1999-2006 the number of AMI and strokes increased from 3.4 to 3.7%, and from 2.0 to 2.9%, respectively. During the same period mean LDL-C level decreased from 126.1 to 114.8 mg/dL, and the self-reported use of lipid-lowering drugs increased from 8 to 13.4%. Furthermore, statin utilisation in 12 European countries between 2000 and 2012 was not associated with reduced CHD mortality or its rate of change over the years.”
In the second paper, Uffe Ravnskov writes about familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) - a genetic condition that prevents the body from removing cholesterol. People with FH have very high cholesterol levels. FH has often been used as a part of the explanation for the use of statins. However, there is not sufficient data to say that statins benefit people with FH. This is still unknown. However, for some time Uffe Ravnskov has argued that coagulation factors should be considered as a priority - which is the subject of the paper.
LDL Cholesterol – The “Bad” Cholesterol Explained
Blood levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) are often assessed when evaluating the risk of future heart disease.
Cholesterol is a fatty substance. Fats are insoluble in water and can therefore not be transported in blood on its own.
The body’s solution to this problem is to bind cholesterol to certain proteins that function as transport vehicles carrying different types of fats such as cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids. These combinations of fats and protein are termed lipoproteins. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the body’s lipoproteins and an important carrier of cholesterol.
The amount of cholesterol carried by different lipoproteins can provide valuable information about the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). LDL-C reflects the amount of cholesterol carried by LDL.
LDL-C is an important marker for the risk of developing heart disease.
Many studies have shown a strong and graded correlation between LDL-C and the risk of CVD, both in women and men. However, this association appears to become less prominent with increasing age, and some studies have suggested that low LDL-C may be associated with increased mortality in older adults.
Available evidence suggests that lowering blood levels of LDL-C reduces the risk of CVD.
According to the European Society of Cardiology, the results of epidemiological and clinical trials confirm that the reduction of LDL-C must be of prime concern in the prevention of CVD.
The Role of Cholesterol
Cholesterol is an organic molecule included in the sterol family.
Sterols are chemical substances, classified as lipids or fats, although they are chemically different from other types of dietary fat, such as triglycerides and phospholipids. Unlike triglycerides, sterols contain no fatty acids. Cholesterol is the best-known sterol, mainly because of its proposed role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
Cholesterol is a major structural component of cell membranes and is especially abundant in nerve and brain tissue. It is also a precursor molecule. For example, vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol.
Cholesterol is also a precursor of important hormones such as progesterones, glucocorticoids (cortisol), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone), androgens (testosterone) and estrogens.
Cholesterol occurs only in foods of animal origin.
Because the body can synthesize cholesterol, it is not needed in the diet.
Most of our cholesterol is synthesized by the liver. Studies have shown that increasing dietary cholesterol may reduce synthesis, although probably not by an equivalent amount.
The Role of Lipoproteins
A standard lipid panel provides information about the amount of cholesterol carried by different lipoproteins.
The main role of lipoprotein particles is to transport fats such as triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood between the organs of the body.
There are five major types of lipoproteins; chylomicrons, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
LDL is called low-density lipoprotein because LDL particles tend to be less dense than other kinds of cholesterol particles.
HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is often termed the “good” cholesterol while LDL-C is usually termed the “bad” cholesterol.
What Does High LDL Cholesterol Mean?
Elevated levels of LDL-C in the blood are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease.
There are specialized receptors on cell surfaces that bind LDL-C, these are called LDL-receptors. A lack of LDL-receptors may reduce the uptake of cholesterol by the cells, forcing it to remain in the circulation thereby raising blood levels.
In familial hypercholesterolemia, which is a genetic disorder, the body is unable to remove LDL from the blood. This leads to high levels of LDL-C in the blood, which may severely increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, even at a young age.
How Is LDL Cholesterol Calculated?
Cholesterol levels are measured in milligrams (mg) of cholesterol per deciliter (dL) of blood in the US and some other countries. Canada and most European countries measure cholesterol in millimoles (mmol) per liter (L) of blood.
Blood tests typically report LDL-C. These numbers are usually based on calculation, using the Friedewald equation that includes total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides. This equation relies on the assumption that the ratio of triglyceride to cholesterol is constant, which is not always the case.
If mg/dl is your unit, like in the United States the formula looks like this:
LDL cholesterol = [Total cholesterol] – [HDL cholesterol] – [TG]:5
If mmol/l is your unit like in Australia, Canada, and Europe the formula looks like this:
LDL cholesterol = [Total cholesterol] – [HDL cholesterol] – [TG]:2.2
Thus, LDL-C calculations may have limitations when blood triglyceride levels are either high or low. Direct LDL -C measurements are also available, but are less often done due to higher costs.
Some studies show that the number of LDL particles (LDL-P) may be a better predictor of risk than LDL-C. LDL particle size may also be important when assessing risk.
LDL Cholesterol Range
It is considered important to keep cholesterol levels, especially LDL-C within certain limits. If you have other risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, or if you smoke, keeping LDL-C low becomes even more important. Hence, when considering the “normal” range for LDL-C, the risk or presence of CVD has to be taken into account.
Here you can see how LDL-C levels are interpreted:
LDL Cholesterol Range
above 190 mg/dL (4.9 mmol/L) is considered very high
160 – 189 mg/dL (4.1 – 4.9 mmol/L) is considered high
130 – 159 mg/dL (3.4 – 4.1 mmol/L) is considered borderline high
100 – 129 mg/dL (2.6 – 3.3 mmol/L) is considered near ideal
below 100 mg/dL (below 2.6 mmol/L) is considered ideal for people at risk of heart disease
below 70 mg/dL (below 1.8 mmol/L) is considered ideal for people at very high risk of heart disease
How Can You Influence Your LDL Cholesterol?
If your LDL-C is high, your doctor will probably suggest lifestyle changes. Quitting smoking will be helpful and so may eating whole grain, oatmeal, olive oil, beans, fruit, and vegetables. Most doctors will recommend eating less saturated fat, found primarily in meat and dairy products.
Trans fats should be avoided. These fats are found in fried foods and many commercial products, such as cookies, crackers and snack cakes. However, keep in mind that food products labeled “trans fat-free” may still contain some trans fat. In the US, if a food may be labeled “trans fat-free” if it contains less than 0.5 grams of trans fat in a serving.
Soluble fiber may help lower LDL-C. Soluble fiber is found in oats and oat bran, fruits, beans, lentils, and vegetables.
Regular exercise is desirable. Losing weight may be helpful.
Some studies show that low-carbohydrate diets may positively affect LDL particle size and number.
If lifestyle changes don’t help, your doctor may suggest medications that lower cholesterol. So-called statins are the most commonly used drugs for lowering cholesterol.
Studies have shown that statins improve prognosis among patients with an established CVD. Their role for treatment of raised LDL-C in healthy people (primary prevention) is less clear. The decision to give statins in primary prevention is usually based on other risk factors as well as the LDL-C value itself.
Does eating fat make you fat?
Eating natural fats doesn’t make one fat like we’ve been told the last 25 years, I don’t believe.
Nor does eating a diet rich in cholesterol cause high cholesterol.
I’m not sure about cholesterol. I know that many people hate the statin drugs they are put in due to the side effects. Cholesterol seems to be highly controversial.
Fat doesn’t cause people to be fat necessarily. If you’re eating the fat on your ribeyes, I don’t think you’re going to gain fat. If you’re eating a ton of processed carbs, you’re going to get fat.
Way oversimplifying it, but no, eating unprocessed, so-called good fats, won’t make you fat. Processed carbs will make you fat.
Cows and pigs do not eat fat, but they are fat, wolves eat fat but they are not fat.
My strong opinion, eat whatever you want or can, just be active, exercise more.
I dd this all my life and never had any bad cholesterol or belly or whatever,
As soon as i f...d up my wrists and knees and started hunting less, stopped playing tennis and going to gym, no matter what diet i'm on, i gained 25 LB,mostly belly fat and have high cholesterol...
So, be a wolf... ot a tiger.... or maybe a cougar....
So what is the root cause of cholesterol plaques building up in arteries? inflammation? some sort of bacteria like was found to be a major cause of ulcers?