Thank you for the information Ungavawatcher. From what I can gather from the data is the greatest correlation of all data is dependent on the overall temperature... All the graphs directly correlate to the temperature: Higher temperature, higher young/adult ratio and higher breeding pair count... My question is, and it is not trying to be a difficult one, is that if the geese can be short stopped on their migration route by more favorable habitat/temperatures, or even hunting pressure, wouldn't they consider that possibility of not returning to the same breeding ground year after year of failure? In essence, are the Ungava breeding geese giving up on being Ungava breeding geese and morphing into other populations? I am all for protecting the "resource" but are we sure that the resource hasn't bailed on us? My other question is regarding band data. Over the years, I have been fortunate to harvest perhaps 6 banded Canada geese ( a really, really low rate of recoveries considering the amount of geese that I have harvested). They were equally distributed from being banded in a remote eskimo sounding villages and Blackwater NWR. First, I guess we assume that the Blackwater geese are part of the AP population by association. I anticipate that since they were banded on the Eastern Shore, they definitively winter on the Shore...Do they band (AP) geese in New York and Pennsylvania, and do they get the majority of the band returns of those birds in those areas ( or are the NY/PA being harvested on the Shore in November which would indicate a migratory "urge" as opposed to a survival migration as happens when the northern states freeze out) ..I have never seen nor heard of a neck collared AP Canada goose in my 40 years of bird watching and hunting on the Eastern Shore... how do we know which geese fly where? It was my understanding that the Lake Mattamusket - North Carolina Geese were short stopped on the Eastern Shore, yet a small segment of migratory birds still makes it there annually - I assume from some descendants still make that journey since that is what they know... Could it be that we on the Eastern Shore are doing a great job of wiping out the geese that instinctively migrate to the shore. The dismal amount of birds that we saw this year might be all that is left of the "shore" geese, and thus our population only spikes when the cold weather pushes other populations into our area for survival. As a young man, I lived outside of Chestertown, and annually the first geese showed up on our farm within one day of September 8th; year in and year out - true migration urges ( lunar) and not temperature dependent... By early October we had a substanital population of geese everywhere. Now, the first geese may start arriving in late September, but usually in small numbers until the end of October..... Something has changed.... My thinking is that the USFW is doing a great job of counting birds, but may be missing the bigger picture as migrations have morphed.. is there anyway of tracking these migrations...perhaps DNA testing of Ungava breeding pairs to establish those traits versus other populations and see where/how they disperse? Just a thought.